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Autumn and winter vegetables, are you ready?
Published:2018-08-26 08:54:33    Text Size:【BIG】【MEDIUM】【SMALL

The white dew has passed, and it has reached an important period of vegetable cultivation in autumn and winter. This amaranth is well planted, which is directly related to the supply of vegetables this autumn and winter and the spring of the next year, which is related to the annual income of the vegetable farmers. Compared with spring vine vegetables, the temperature in autumn and winter is low, the light is relatively insufficient, and the pests and diseases are frequent. It is especially important to manage the field. How do vegetables grow at this time?

Large-scale cultivation of vegetables should be updated in a timely manner

How to grow good food and get the best benefit with the least amount of investment. The author provides the following suggestions based on the situation of some vegetable-scale growers who are usually researched:

 

☞The scale of the cockroach should be moderate, and it should not be blindly greedy.

Blind greed has caused a shortage of funds. Other technologies, facilities, cold chain, processing, and sales have not kept up in time, and the more they grow, the more they lose. Therefore, large-scale vegetable farming should be done with due diligence and moderate development.

 

☞Technology is first, often technical updates

Scale farming is not like retail investors, and the harvest has little to do with it. A technician at a vegetable base said that sometimes technicians can reduce thousands of dollars in one sentence. The author has seen many examples of losses caused by lack of cultivation management. Some of them have not done well in wintering nursery insulation management. All night frost and snow seedlings are all frozen to death; some because of the fertilizer application of burnt seedlings. Therefore, large-scale farming must have excellent technology and often carry out technical updates.

 

☞Find the market to sell, not to blindly produce and then find the market

Li Liangjun of Luhuajiang Village, Heshan District, Yiyang City, Hunan Province, has been doing catering business in Changsha for a long time. He saw the high price of slings. After connecting several chain catering stores in Changsha, he returned home to build a 300-mu base with an average price of 30 yuan and one kilogram. The product has been in short supply.

 

☞Pay attention to post-harvest packaging and branding

The person in charge of the vegetable wholesale market said that the same Chinese cabbage, some bases are shipped to the market by dump trucks, like dumping garbage, the handling fee is saved, and the price is cheap, but no one wants. Some people sell cabbage, a six-pack, packed in fiber bags, each piece is about the same, although the price is higher, but it is popular among vegetable vendors.

 

How to grow vegetables in autumn and winter?

☞Reasonable arrangement of planting mouthwash

Open field vegetables should pay attention not only to avoid meteorological disasters and high incidence of pests and diseases, but also to prevent the excessive concentration of sowing date, affecting the rational arrangement of labor and employment, resulting in oversupply of concentrated harvest. Facility vegetables should pay attention to the changes in the price of vegetables in the target market, the characteristics of local winter and spring climate, the structural performance of different greenhouses, and rationally arrange the post-expansion cultivation and autumn and winter alfalfa, winter and spring alfalfa production and its variety structure.

 

☞Intensive breeding

The early autumn and winter vegetable production coincides with the summer and autumn, meteorological disasters and high incidence of pests and diseases, and the use of protective facilities for intensive seedlings can effectively fight disasters and reduce disasters, save seeds, save labor and ensure planting quality.

Strengthen facility management

1.Lighting management

Active measures should be taken to increase the light in the facility. The film surface should be cleaned. Pay attention to the timely vines and remove the diseased leaves and old leaves to increase ventilation and light transmission. Manual fill light can also be used.

 

 

2.Temperature management

In the late autumn and early winter, the climate is not too cold. The vegetables in the facility should be protected from high temperature and heat during the day, and the temperature should be kept high during the night. Insulation coverings in the harsh winter greenhouse should be strictly controlled. After rolling up the insulation covering in the morning, the indoor temperature is not significantly reduced to the appropriate time; in the afternoon, when the indoor temperature drops to 20 °C, the insulation cover is put down for a suitable time to minimize the loss of heat at night.

 

 

3.Fertilizer management

Before the autumn equinox, watering should be done in time, and appropriate topdressing should be applied to promote the early growth of the seedlings. From autumn to cold, it is necessary to increase the supply of fertilizer and water to promote high quality and high yield. After the cold dew, it is necessary to stop fertilization and properly control the watering, but the growth of the facilities is still strong after the autumn and the autumn and winter, and the winter and spring. It is necessary to ensure sufficient supply of fertilizer and water. After entering the winter, the fertilizer and water should be strictly controlled, especially during the heavy snow to the cold period. It is necessary to adhere to the drought and not watering. Select the cold water just after the cold weather, and the water temperature should not be lower than 10 °C, and try to minimize the topdressing. After the spring heats up, increase the water and fertilizer supply appropriately.

4.Gas management

For facilities and vegetables with insufficient organic fertilizer application or soilless cultivation, carbon dioxide gas fertilizer should be added to make the carbon dioxide concentration in the facility reach an appropriate level. In the severe winter season, the facility has a small amount of ventilation, and it is not advisable to apply urea and ammonium nitrogen fertilizer in large quantities to avoid deficiency and ammonia poisoning. At the same time, when the temperature is high at noon, attention should be paid to ventilation and ventilation to eliminate harmful gases in the protected area.

5.Plant adjustment

The planting density of facilities and fruits is generally significantly greater than that of open fields. It is necessary to strengthen plant adjustment to prevent shading. In the areas where the winter is continuous, rainy, rainy, smog, and high frequency of occurrence, the facility vegetables should pay attention to proper flowering and thinning, and harvest at an early time to prevent the plants from premature aging due to excessive burden.

 

Strengthen the prevention and control of pests and diseases

1Agronomic prevention and control

Mainly based on local conditions, comprehensive application of distant rotation, water and drought rotation, grafting for roots, age-appropriate seedlings, drip irrigation under the membrane, coordinated promotion of water, fertilizer, gas and heat, as well as application of microbial fertilizer, amino acid oligosaccharides, etc., increase root activity and increase plant Agronomic control measures such as stress resistance.

 

 

2Physical prevention and control

Long-lasting drip-fogging function film film, shelter, sunshade net, insect-proof net cover to prevent pests and diseases, using yellow and blue plates and frequency vibration insecticidal lamps to trap aphids, whiteflies, thrips and lepidopteran pests, Ground full coverage, high temperature shack, space electric field and enhanced heat storage and heat preservation, ventilation and moisture removal measures to prevent low temperature and high humidity diseases. Actively demonstrate the promotion of bio-feeding agents. It can also spray 26.9% quartz water agent (silicon shark) to form a silica crystal layer on the vegetable surface as a physical barrier to effectively prevent the invasion of bacteria. Fields with severe grass damage should be covered with black, black and white double-sided, silver-black double-sided mulch weeding. Actively demonstrate and promote ozone bio-waste treatment and ozone disinfection and disease prevention technology and equipment.

 

 

3Biological control

According to local conditions, the demonstration and promotion of the control of greenhouse whitefly, application of attractants, biological pesticides and other measures to control pests and diseases.

 

 

4Chemical prevention and control

 

Including the selection of high-efficiency, low-toxic and short-lived pesticides, high-atomization application equipment and timely symptomatic medication, prohibiting the use of high-toxic long-lasting pesticides, strict safety intervals.

 

 

5Soil disinfection and repair technology

The soil is treated with cotton or lime nitrogen, covered with agricultural high-resistance membranes to control soil-borne diseases, and microbial agents or biological bacterial fertilizers are used to repair soil ecosystems. Increasing the application of straw and straw source fertilizer, combined with the use of soil conditioners, to improve the level of soil fertility.

 

——Abstracted from "2015 National Autumn and Winter Vegetable Production Technical Guidance"

 

 

 
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